2012-5-31 · Therefore ability of Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) to remove sulfur is low due to its highly oxidized slag. Desulfurization may be effectively conducted in the reducing slag stage of the steel making process in Electric-arc furnace. At this stage the oxidizing slag is removed and then lime flux is added to form basic slag with high CaO content.
In addition, there is a anti-correlation between AOD and seasonal variations of relative humidity. -AODVOD。The bulk of world stainless steel is made through secondary steel making - AOD or VOD processes.
2015-6-15 · The argon-oxygen-decarburization (AOD) process is a common metallurgical treatment to decarburize by using oxygen and insert gas injection through bottom tuyeres and a top-lance. AOD converters are characterized by a fast and so as to reduce the amount of dust during the steel-making process. Zhu and Wei[8,9] had
The studies in the literature on physical and mathematical modeling of the argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD) process of stainless steel have briefly been reviewed. The latest advances made by the author with his research group have been summarized. Water modeling was used to investigate the fluid flow and mixing characteristics in the bath of an 18 t AOD vessel, as well as the “back-attack
This process is Air – Oxygen – Inert gas Decarburization (AOD) process, for Stainless Steel out of mild steel, Mild Steel out of high Cast Iron Melt, and alloy steel economically PLC based Gas Mixing Station of MRK gives flow measurements compensated for pressure and temperature variation.
2016-1-4 · a model. A mathematical model developed for use as an AOD process control tool is described in this thesis. Description of the AOD Process In the AOD process, a stainless steel charge is melted in an electric furnace and then transferred to a separate refining vessel shaped like an oxygen converter. (See Figure 1).
2016-5-25 · Stainless steel is known for excellent corrosion resistance. It is an integral part of modern life and is used in a range of appliions, including heavy industry, architecture, automotive manufacture, surgery and dentistry.. Until the 1950s and 1960s, which saw the development of AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) and VOD (vacuum oxygen decarburization), the processes to produce stainless
AOD is the key facility of stainless steel smelting. As early as 1960s, CERI cooperated with the Taiyuan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. to research and develop the first 18t AOD of China, and it becomes the main process equipment of stainless steel production of the Taiyuan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. for a long time.
2009-10-21 · etc., implements the throughout-process quality control from iron-making, steel-making (BOF, EAF), hot-rolled coil, heavy plate, bar steel to tube making and processing, is superior in scale with regard to the comprehensive production of the giant steel complex
A new dynamic control model based on simultaneous mass transfer of C, Cr, and Mn and dynamic heat balance is developed. It allows dynamic adjustment of argon-oxygen ratio. The model is implemented through Level II control system. The total operating period of one heat is divided into five different stages: charge calculation, first blow period, second blow period, third blow period and, lastly
In the AOD process, a mixture of argon and oxygen is blown through the molten steel in the ladle furnace, and the oxygen achieves the main objective of oxidising unwanted carbon in the steel melt. But because the vital and expensive chromium contained in all stainless steels is also prone to oxidation and subsequent loss with the process slag
2020-8-23 · Steel - Steel - Electric-arc steelmaking: About one-quarter of the world’s steel is produced by the electric-arc method, which uses high-current electric arcs to melt steel scrap and convert it into liquid steel of a specified chemical composition and temperature. External arc heating permits better thermal control than does the basic oxygen process, in which heating is accomplished by the
2019-6-13 · The smelting and refining process for iron and steel in the BF-BOF process involves the carbon reduction of iron ore (Fe 2 O 3) in the BF to make molten iron, and decarburization of molten iron in the BOF to make molten steel. Major reducing agent in the BF is the carbon monoxide gas(CO) generated by the oxidation of the carbon(C) in coke.
Learn more about Praxair’s Argon Oxygen Decarburization process that is used to make over 75% of the world’s stainless steel. Argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) converter is popularly used in the stainless steel making process. AOD has a top lance for oxygen injection and several.
And such conditions are met by these steel making processes like AOD and VOD. So at the end of AOD, we can obtain around 0.3 percent carbon and also 30 to 50 ppm of sulfur. And by applying this VOD process we can obtain very low content of carbon up to 0.04 percent, and also sulfur can be drastically reduced to as low as around 10 ppm.
2015-9-10 · 188.8.131.52 Process Description In a minimill, scrap metal is melted and refined in an electric arc furnace (EAF) to make steel products. Generally, molten steel is produced in an EAF and then tapped from the EAF to a ladle. The molten steel is then usually …
Alkali Activation of AOD Stainless Steel Slag Under Steam Curing Conditions. Muhammad Salman. Corresponding Author. Department of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40, bus 2448, 3001 Leuven, Belgium Mirja Illikainen, Alkali Activation of Ladle Slag from Steel-Making Process, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 10.1007/s40831
2020-8-20 · Steel makers face numerous challenges in the steel melting process due to variability in raw materials. Carmeuse supplies quality products which are consistent in properties to help steel makers overcome these challenges allowing you to focus on producing cleaner steel. IMPACT YOUR PROFITABILITY Read case studies Read white papers Profitability Solutions: Our products include
2015-2-5 · Mughal steel has eraced the philosophy of Total Quality Assurance. Therefore, the quality of all products is ensured at all stages of the steel making process. This quality control process involves monitoring the quality throughout the whole production process.
Argon Oxygen Decarburization Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) is a process primarily used in stainless steel making and other high grade alloys with Standards of Performance for the control of emissions from electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels in the steel industry are being proposed
2013-9-13 · process, which is used for producing stainless steels with ultra-low carbon grades, was investigated for different vessel pressures. Moreover, the post coustion phenomena in a BOF or LD (Linz-Donawitz) process as well as an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization) process were studied focusing on the decarburization stage.
2018-12-10 · production data. Besides EAF, AOD is also an important process for decarburization with respect to stainless steel making. In recent years, over 75% stainless steel is being produced through AOD process, hence extensive research has been carried out on the mass and heat balances for AOD…
The present invention relates to the technique that a kind of RKEF produces ferronickel, ferrochrome and AOD furnace triplex process smelting stainless steel, comprise step: adopt the RKEF technique thick nickelalloy of melting and ferrochrome respectively, and control melting technology parameter; Produce thick nickelalloy molten iron and ferrochrome molten iron; Adopt ladle splendid attire
Nibbling is a process of cutting by blanking out a series of overlapping holes and is ideally suited for irregular shapes. Stainless steel can also be cut using flame cutting, which involves a flame-fired torch using oxygen and propane in conjunction with iron powder. This method is clean and fast.
The invention relates to a technique for smelting stainless steel, and particularly relates to a novel technique for smelting stainless steel through an RKEF (rotary kiln-electric furnace) and AOD furnace duplex process. The technique comprises the following steps: directly feeding crude nickel alloy molten iron produced by an RKEF into an AOD furnace, performing duplex refining to produce
During the last four decades, the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) process has been established as one of the most efficient processes for stainless steel making. The process consists of several stages: coined top- and side-blowing decarburization, side-blowing decarburization, reduction of slag, desulfurization and alloying (if it is needed).